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Indeed the emotions that Europa experiences after her dream are to a great extent similar to the emotions Europa is going to experience during her future meeting with the bull. In Megara the prevailing emotion of sorrow is expressed through two different points of views, which are about two different times. Studying these two different points of views, we conclude that the poet intends to emphasize the view pertaining to the future. Her grief is manifested physically through the tears running on her cheeks Therefore, the dream manifests itself as the result of her emotional state.

Her dream is clearly a nightmare Firstly, we note the sweet feeling of sleep that occupies Alcmene 91 , shortly before the dream episode begins to unfold. The dream is a nightmare, as is proved by the line Her awakening takes place at the most crucial moment of the dream, when her fear and agony are at their peak. Alcmene is crying, externalizing in this way her fear physically In essence, the epyllion is completed with the description of the dream.

After that positive feeling, negative senses of fear, anxiety and grief mainly conquer the three dreamers. Regarding the emotions after the dream, I remark that they are merely identical in all three cases. Regarding the role that the dreams are called to serve in the development of the poetic plot, I notice that each dream plays its own role. Is using Freudian dream theory to better understand Hellenistic dreams anachronistic? Some scholars believe that we should avoid imposing modern Freudian theories on Hellenistic dreams.

However, the application of modern psychoanalytical theory can be a useful tool in our interpretation.

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Freudian theories give us the opportunity to approach the Hellenistic dreams through a modern perspective giving an additional clarity to our attempt to understand and interpret them. Giangrande, G. Konstan, D. The Emotions of the Ancient Greeks. Studies in Aristotle and Classical Literature. Sistakou, E.

Hunter and A. Playing on Oedipus's fate, he describes Freud's realisation as a 'type of knowledge so devastating as to be unbearable in one's sight, and only slightly more bearable as a subject of psychological interpretation' p.

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By subverting patri-lineal order, an order which assumes that the earlier an insight occurs the more significant it must be, Said argues that through Oedipus, Freud a throws into disarray the progression we have come to regard as 'natural' in life, narrative and analysis:. Here Said proposes that a particular style of writing that communicates and performs an analogy with the Oedipal disruption, presents a new way of thinking. His point is that through a methodical study of Freud's self-analysis, we can uncover how Freud discovered that 'devastating' knowledge.

He argues that the knowledge of an individual's or a society past that we obtain through a new form of writing that performs what it argues produces a new way of thinking. In the second analogy between The interpretation and Oedipus, Said addresses several conventions about the relationship between logic and narrative that governed the writing of science, history and fiction in late nineteenth-century Europe, and which Freud chose to avoid.

These conventions work in combinations or separately, because they are not all simultaneously compatible. The first convention removes a text in time and space from whatever it describes; it assumes that 'verbal' text always follows 'material' event a By contrast, Freud includes his own dreams and self-analysis in The interpretation , so that he is both word and deed.

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The second convention refers to the notion of a linear, irreversible movement in which the conclusion must follow from the beginning or premises. Freud departs from this convention when he argues by exclusion to show why his approach is more compelling than his predecessors' and contemporaries', and why his dream self-analysis does not follow a linear path. Towards the end of his analysis of The interpretation of dreams , Said speculates that in his late works Freud reacted to the prospect of his books 'becoming the fundamental authorising texts of a new science', reacting ambivalently, to the issue of paternity and hierarchy.

Freud a did so by expanding the areas of knowledge which defined this new science into regions that his work already acknowledged but which were unknowable. He restricted the boundaries of the conscious and extended the terrain of the unconscious. Here Said's point is that Freud used a 'modern' mode of writing that ushered in a new way of thinking that made public the structure of the unconscious, so that the exposed unconscious became the consciousness of modernity.

This offers a different response to Armstrong's question, 'How can the growth of the unconscious lead to a progressive expansion of consciousness? It may be that Said answered the question differently because he read The interpretation through Freud's later works such as Totem and taboo , in which ambivalence plays a key role.

There he describes 'ambivalent impulses' as those 'corresponding simultaneously to both a wish and a counter-wish, or operating predominantly on behalf of one of the two opposing trends' Said , where one impulse, usually the antisocial, destructive or feared one is repressed. Interestingly, Said reverses the Freudian flow of ambivalence. In Totem and taboo and Moses and monotheism, Freud stresses the son's ambivalence towards the father figure, whereas in Beginnings Said refers to Freud's 'repeated analysis of the ambivalent father' a Assuming this is not a Freudian slip, Said's point is that in the content and presentation of The interpretation , Freud was an author who became an authority by contravening contemporary narrative and explanatory conventions.

He achieved this by exposing the patriarchal order on which they rested. This reversal installs a father figure who is ambivalent, because he uses his authority as a father figure to expose the source of his own power. He also appears in Orientalism. If Orientalism offers the West a means to acknowledge its internal conflicts without resolving them, as Said's analysis of The Bacchae suggests, then there must be an ambivalence in the West about the legitimacy of its source of authority over itself.

Here there is something distinctly Freudian, particularly the Freud of Totem and taboo or Moses and monothesim , about Said's thinking. Totem enables Said to establish a form of continuity between what he says about these Greek texts in Orientalism and On late style. In Freud's four linked essays about exogamy and the expression of the incest prohibition through totemism Freud , , 72, , , ambivalence is a fundamental presupposition. One might describe it as an attitudinal or affective continuity, which makes possible an explanation that is simultaneously 'historical and psychological' p.

In that way, ambivalence facilitates 'arguing back from a comparatively high phase of religious ritual to the lowest one' Said's comments on the performance of Euripides's, Sophocles's and Aeschylus's tragedies in his own time and at the time of their composition also assume a 'historical and psychological' continuity, and here he is at one with Freud in The interpretation and Totem and taboo.

In the former, Freud observes that it is the subject matter of Oedipus Rex , and not its generic qualities, that moves contemporary audiences p.

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In the later Totem and taboo , he argues that these same tragedies were 'derived from the historical scene through a process of systematic distortion' p. Subsequent performances retain the initial significance and purpose, even though they transformed the primal horde, which had previously attacked and killed the 'primal father' p.

Thus, where Said focuses on the meaning of the space that the chorus occupies in works which he has already decided initiate an Orientalist discourse, works which simultaneously perform the West's ambivalence towards the authority with which it exercises self-control, for Freud the chorus also expresses ambivalence towards self-control, here through the transformation into a ritual of murder, castration, dismemberment and consumption of the primal father. And this, says Freud in Civilization and its discontents , 'brings us to the more general problem of preservation in the sphere of the mind'.

Freudian Mythologies: Greek Tragedy and Modern Identities

Freud's argument about modern neurotics, 'savage' people and children flattens out historical differences between those he believes cannot or cannot yet progress beyond narcissism pp. By contrast, he draws on architectural imagery - the value of heritage and the symbolic capital of the built environment - to talk about himself.


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For the Said of Freud and the non-European , Freud's Athens is 'a city of the mind, a generally more adequate representation of Freud's lifelong dedication to intellectual achievement' p. That 'city of the mind' rested on a strong foundation of German philhellenism, which underlay his own facility with Latin and Greek, his reading of Heinrich Schliemann and Arthur Evans, and the excavations at Troy, Knossos and Pompeii Freud ; Tourney , Athens was not only associated with the serene order of classical architecture, but with myths such as Oedipus and Narcissus.

Downing stresses 'how important it was in his [ Freud's ] self-analysis for him to discover himself in relation to the mythical prototype, Oedipus' p. In turn, this rested on claims that Evans and Schliemann had discovered the actual labyrinth beneath Knossos or the actual Troy of the Iliad , and on a circular argument that linked myth, psychoanalysis and scientific respectability.

As Tourney explains it, Freud and several of his disciples reinforced how crucial mythology was 'for the understanding of psychoanalytic concepts, as well as a scientific realisation of the meaning of myths through psychoanalytic principles' p. No wonder that Tourney goes further, describing this as an obsession pp. For Freud, Athens and Rome became monuments to his own considerable achievements. In the case of The interpretation of dreams , through adolescent identification with Hannibal, Rome became a reminder of his status as determined outsider.

As he became aware of and reacted against anti-Semitism, through his Latin classes Freud identified with the Semitic general. In the case of Civilization and its discontents , he attempts to use Rome, with its juxtapositions of remnants, ruins and buildings across the centuries as an example of the challenges he faced in explaining the relationship between memory, repression and physical deterioration to an audience that was ignorant or unreceptive towards psychoanalysis.

He concludes that not even the eternal city of Rome could match the complexity of his own discovery and intellectual construction. If cultural nationalism refuses a history of mixture or suppresses 'foreign' influences, the better to prove the existence of a pure national culture, so too do elements of what Bernal would later call the Aryan Model. These factors influenced Freud's public record of a self-analysis precipitated by his only visit to Greece.

Freud certainly received a 'good education' for the time, persuasive enough to make him remember in what he had experienced in when he visited the Athens Acropolis: the Greece of his childhood memories and a purified Aryan vision. In the book, A disturbance of memory on the Acropolis , he sees the Athens of his childhood education and enjoys the realisation that 'all this really does exist, just as we learnt at school! Contemporary Greece and Athens leave no impression, and this makes sense because the remnants of imperium and polis had received very different treatments.

facmandbate.tk Rome's abundant signs of the intervening provided him with imperfect spatio-temporal analogies that affirmed his achievements even as he acknowledged his own decline. However, by the late 19th century in Greece following the systematic ' purification of the landscape, by removing all remnants that polluted the material traces of the golden age of the classical period' Hamilakis emphasis in original , there were few signs of years of Turkish, Oriental occupation on that acropolis.

This created the impression of continuity between classical and contemporary Greece, which Freud's excited response affirms. In the book, A disturbance of memory on the Acropolis , Freud enacts a looking back to ; as part of this re-creation, he steps back even further into his childhood education and the images of ancient Greece and classical Athens that it contains, and he juxtaposes these reconstructions of his memories with the experience of being in the 'actual place' as an adult.

To get there, he and his brother had to limit 'filial piety'.


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Only then could they understand their reluctance to go further in all aspects of their lives than their less-educated, parochial father. From Freud's perspective it shows us why, even if Jakob Freud was not a primal father figure and his sons were not a primal horde, it is good to acknowledge resolve, even one's ambivalence on father issues. It is possible, Freud implies to challenge the father figure while respecting him, and to make one's own way in the world, relatively happily, while leaving the family intact.