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P , Rabat, Morocco. The overall extraction constants are logK Senhaji S.
B, Elyahyaoui A. Orient J Chem ;31 3. Zinc is an important base metal involved in various applications in metallurgical, chemical and textile industries . It is mainly recovered from primary sulphide concentrates.
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A part of zinc is also recovered from different secondary resources such as zinc ash, zinc dross, flue dusts of electric arc furnace and brass smelting, automobile shredder scrap, rayon industry sludge etc[7, 37]. Wastewater effluents, solid industrial waste and sewage are considered as the main pathways of zinc to aquatic environment . With rising environmental awareness, the presence of heavy metals, in nature is severely controlled .
Although zinc in micro amount is an essential oligo-element for a healthy body, zinc excess can be harmful, and causes zinc toxicity . Reducing the discharge of this element into surface water becomes crucial operation [4,7]. For compliance with strict environmental regulation, developing process for the recovery of zinc from leach solutions, spent solution and effluents becomes increasingly important.
Several methods are used to achieve this purpose such as chemical precipitation, liquid —liquid extraction, ion exchange, and adsorption. Among these methods, liquid-liquid extraction is the most promising process for the separation and recovery of metals from the complex and low metallic containing solutions, for being one of the most economical and practical processes[2, 9, 10]. Some conventional treatment techniques are less efficient, especially when zinc concentration effluent is relatively low.
The advantage of these mixing systems is due to ability of used reagents to combine complexation phenomenon and ion exchange process. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the development of chelating ion exchangers with the aminoacid groups to improve the extractability and selectivity of heavy metal ions . Among the chelating ligands, quinoxalines have foundextensive applications in coordination chemistrydue to ease of preparation, and as they can form stable complexes with most transition metal ions[21, 22, ].
To remove zinc more efficiently and economically requires more extensive information on the interaction of this element, with various extractant ligands, and inorganic anions. HNO 3 is suitable for a digestion of concentrated organic samples. The aim of the present study is to examine the extraction of zinc in NO 3 - medium, with 3-methyl-2 1H quinoxaline-thione which is a bifunctionalextanctant groups.
The advantage of this process is that can combine complexing phenomena, ion-pair formation and ion exchange reactions. A solution of synthesized extractant is prepared with dissolution of 0.
Marcus, Y. [WorldCat Identities]
All reagents are of analytical grade and used without further purification. Figure 1. Preliminary tests have shown that equilibrium of extraction is reached in less than 5 min. After equilibration, the separator funnel is left standing for at least 10 min for completing phase separation. The zinc II concentration in the organic phase is obtained by mass balance.
The distribution ratio, D, is calculated from the ratio of the equilibrium concentration of Zn II in the organic phase to that one in the aqueous phase. The effect of the initial zinc concentration on the extraction was studied in the range 0. Distinct pH regions with different slopes characterize the various extracted species, and suggest the change in extraction mechanism. This process is ion-pair formation involving protonated amine group .
As a result, logD increases with pH to reach a maximum at pHmax and then decreases as pH continues to rise. Optimum pH max is found at 4. When pH becomes higher than pH max 4. Starting with a throughout discussion of the properties of liquid water, in particular as a structured liquid with an extensive hydrogen bonded structure, the book examines water as a solvent for gases, non-electrolytes, and electrolytes and reviews the properties, sizes and thermodynamics of isolated and aqueous ions, as well as their interactions, including those of polyelectrolytes.
The effects of ions on water structure, including those on solvent dynamics and certain thermodynamic quantities, are presented. This volume investigates water surfaces with its vapour, with another liquid, and with a solid, as well as the effects of solutes, including simple ions and the water-miscible non-electrolytes.
Surfaces are relevant to biomolecular and colloidal systems and the book discusses briefly surfactants, micelles and vesicles. Ions in Water and Biophysical Implications, from Chaos to Cosmos will appeal to physical chemists, biophysicists, biochemists, as well as to all students and researchers involved in the study of aqueous solutions. Ion solvation by Y Marcus Book 15 editions published between and in English and Undetermined and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Ionic liquid properties : from molten salts to RTILs by Y Marcus 13 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide This volume deals with substances in the liquid state that range from high melting salts, such as calcium fluoride, through slags, such as silicates, down to lower melting salts, such as lithium nitrate, molten hydrated salts, such as magnesium chloride hexahydrate, to room temperature ionic liquids, such as 1,3-dimethylimmidazolium tetraphenylborate.
It provides the reader with annotated, critically examined, and compiled data for such materials. The data includes a variety of thermochemical, structural, and transport properties.
get link The book includes correlations of measured properties; these correlations should enable the reader to estimate, on a sound basis, properties for ionic liquids that have not yet been measured. Equilibrium constants of liquid-liquid distribution reactions by International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry Book 11 editions published in in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide Equilibrium Constants of Liquid-liquid Distribution Reactions Introduction, and Part 1: Organophosphorus Extractants focuses on the numerical representations, formulas, reactions, and characteristics of equilibrium constants of organophosphorus extractants.
The text underscores that only a number of papers focusing on equilibrium constants for distribution reactions involving metal complexes are published before The book also states that no equilibrium constants have been reported on several organophosphorus extractants although they are used in practical extraction work. The publicati. Solvent mixtures : properties and selective solvation by Y Marcus Book 13 editions published in in English and Spanish and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide Examining the properties, function and behaviour of binary, ternary and multicomponent mixtures in the presence and absence of solutes, this text details the effects and impact of preferential solvation on the environment, action and components of chemical systems.
Solvent extraction research; proceedings by International Conference on Solvent Extraction Chemistry Book 3 editions published in in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Ion exchange equilibrium constants by Y Marcus Book 12 editions published between and in English and Undetermined and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions.
The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table.
The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchan.
Critical evaluation of some equilibrium constants involving organophosphorus extractants by Y Marcus 12 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide Critical Evaluation of Some Equilibrium Constants Involving Organophosphorus Extractants is a supplementary text to the compilation ""Equilibrium Constants of Liquid-Liquid Distribution Reactions Introduction, and Part I: Organophosphorus Extractants. The book contains a number of well documented chemical reactions that are critically evaluated.
The reactions evaluated comprise those from List 1 for which data are available. There are, however, a great variety of reactions that cannot be critically evaluated due to lack of experimental data and unverifiable results. Chemists wi. Deep eutectic solvents by Y Marcus 7 editions published between and in English and Undetermined and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide This is one of the first books fully dedicated to the rapidly advancing and expanding research area of deep eutectic solvents.
Written by the internationally recognized expert in solution chemistry, it supplies full information regarding preparation of these new eco-friendly solvents, their properties and applications. The current and potential applications of deep eutectic solvents as organic reaction media, catalytic system, in biomass processing, nanotechnology and metal finishing industry, as well as for extraction and separation are extensively discussed. This highly informative and carefully presented book will appeal to practicing chemists organic chemists, polymer chemists, biochemists as well as chemical engineers and environmental scientists.
This book discusses the challenges in the field of aromatic photosubstitution.
Organized into six chapters, this book begins with an overview of the diverse reactions of aromatic molecules. This text then examines the pattern of specific RNA found in the human tumors, which showed a notable concordance with the predictions deducible from the animal system. Other chapters consider the methods of estimation of chemical fuels and describe th. Ion exchange and solvent extraction by Arup K SenGupta 10 editions published in in English and held by 94 WorldCat member libraries worldwide Volume 17 in the Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction series represents the vanguard of research on solvent extraction.